Hyaluronic acid is a glycosaminoglycan that is an essential component of connective tissue. It also plays an important role in cell proliferation, cell migration and metastasis in certain types of cancer. As a component of the extracellular matrix, it is present in various tissues as a long-chain, linear polysaccharide and fulfills many functions. Here, the different chemical-physical properties are of particular importance.
Hyaluronic acid is a macromolecular chain consisting of disaccharides, each of which is composed of two glucose derivatives: D-glucuronic acid and N-acetyl-D-glucosamine. The difference to ß-glucose consists only of a substitution at the sixth or second carbon arm. In the disaccharide, the glucuronic acid attaches glycosidically to the N-acetyl-D-glucosamine, which creates a glycosidic link to the next glucuronic acid in the polymeric chain. A chain is composed of 250 to 50,000 disaccharide units. The formation of hydrogen bonds typically occurs between the carboxyl as well as the N-acetyl groups.
Hyaluronic acid is an important indicator for a variety of mechanical functions. For example, it acts as a water reservoir in that it can store large amounts of water relative to its mass (up to six liters per gram). In addition, hyaluronic acid has a high resistance to pressure. It binds an enormous amount of water, which is not very compressible and in turn transfers this characteristic to the tissue containing hyaluronic acid. Furthermore, hyaluronic acid is the main component of synovial fluid (joint fluid), which makes it function as a lubricant during joint movements. It also keeps the pathways for migrating cells clear and is also involved in the formation of other larger giant molecules – proteoglycans, e.g. it can prevent the reconstruction of myelin sheaths and axons involved in multiple sclerosis, is responsible for important structural functions in brain areas, or connects to various cell surface receptors, triggering certain reactions of the cell, especially migration and cell division.
Food supplement and its effect
Hyaluronic acid as a dietary supplement in the form of capsules is used especially in the field of anti-aging for the treatment or prevention of wrinkles. Thanks to its moisturizing or moisturizing property, the skin appears not only clear, but also plump and radiant. The skin gets a small cushion, which provides the skin with a healthy cushion, as it is moisture, which is urgently needed for the skin. Hyaluronic acid capsules are made of vegetable cellulose, so the product retains its naturalness. They do not contain lactose, gluten and sugar. Furthermore, they are free of preservatives or dyes.
During a diet, the capsules promote the production of hyaluronic acid in the body, which is produced in the connective tissue cells under the subcutaneous tissue.
However, hyaluronic acid plays an important role not only for the skin, but also for the joints. Hyaluronic acid capsules replenish the synovial fluid that separates the two bones of the joints, creating a fluid cushion that is necessary as a lubricant. Furthermore, they have a positive effect on the formation of cartilage, as the fluid affects the abrasion of cartilage on the surface. The almost gel-like mass perfectly adapts to the joint bones and promotes smooth mobility.
If you want to prevent wrinkles, creams should definitely be combined with capsules, as they enter the metabolism through the intestines and reach the places where they are needed.